the basics

Import an audience to message

Vero does not store user records. Instead, Vero connects directly to data sources that already contain your user and other product data, enabling you to use that data to message your customers. Vero works best for those who strive to centralise their CRM data in a scalable internal data source, whether that’s Snowflake or Airtable.

Get started with data sources

The easiest way to see what Vero can do is to build an Audience using the simplest type of data source: a CSV.

To add a CSV data source to a Newsletter:

  1. Go to Newsletters.
  2. Select + Add Newsletter.
  3. Give your newsletter a name and select Create.
  4. Select Import a CSV.
  5. Select or drag in a file from your computer.

At this point Vero will attach this data source and load the records into the view so you can see exactly who you’ll be messaging.

Import a CSV

Reusing an audience

Audiences are attached to a single, specific Newsletter. By design, Vero does not store a record of which users or endpoints are in an Audience. There is no concept of lists or “segments”. Vero is designed to connect to your data source and load the most accurate, up-to-date list each time you want to send a message to.

Removing a data source

You can remove a data source from a Newsletter and select an alternate data source to build your audience. To do so, simply select Remove data source when creating a Newsletter.

Expected data format

When adding a data source, Vero expects each row of data to contain at least an endpoint token. Endpoint tokens include email addresses, mobile phone numbers, iOS and Android application push tokens and many more, depending on the channel you’re using to message your customers.

Alongside the endpoint token you can include up to 30 custom key/value properties per row. For example, your data might look like this:


In this example we include an email address as endpoint token (in the email column) as well as three custom key/value properties: first_name, last_name and revenue_last_month.


When creating your message content you can reference any custom key/value properties that are included in your data source.

Invalid audience members

When adding a data source Vero will scan the endpoints you’ve added to your audience to ensure they’re valid. To be valid the attached data must meet the data formatting requirements outlined above.

For each endpoint type Vero will check to ensure the supplied tokens are valid. For example, the invalid email address invalid_email@gmail would be recognised and marked as invalid by Vero.

Confirming subscription status

Whilst Vero does not store a record of user-level data or which users and endpoints are present in an audience, Vero does store the subscription status of each individual endpoint. Vero is designed to be the source-of-truth for your newsletter subscription status.

When adding a data source Vero will scan endpoints that you have previously messaged and mark whether those endpoints are subscribed or unsubscribed.

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